what is diphenidine powder

what is diphenidine powder (1,2-DEPDPDDND) is a dissociative anesthetic that has been sold as a designer drug.[1][2][3] The synthesis of diphenidine was first reported in 1924, and employed a Bruylants reaction analogous to the one that would later be used to discover phencyclidine in 1956.[1] Shortly after the 2013 UK ban on arylcyclohexylamines, diphenidine and the related compound methoxphenidine became available on the grey market.[1] Anecdotal reports describe high doses of diphenidine producing “bizarre somatosensory phenomena and transient anterograde amnesia.”[1] Diphenidine and related diarylethylamines have been studied in vitro as treatments for neurotoxic injury and are antagonists of the NMDA receptor.[4][5][6][7][8] In dogs diphenidine exhibits greater antitussive potency than codeine phosphate.[9][10]

Electrophysiological analysis demonstrates that the amplitude of NMDA-mediated fEPSPs are reduced by diphenidine and ketamine to a similar extent, with diphenidine displaying a slower onset of antagonism.[6] The two enantiomers of diphenidine differ greatly in their ability to block the NMDA receptor, with the more potent (S)-enantiomer possessing affinity forty times higher than the (R)-enantiomer.[5] Since diphenidine’s introduction in 2013 vendors have stated the drug “acts on dopamine transport” yet no data concerning the action of diphenidine on the dopamine transporter was published until 2016.[1] Diphenidine’s highest affinity is for the NMDA receptor, but it does display submicromolar affinity for the σ1 receptorσ2 receptor and dopamine transporter.[11][12]

Since 2014 there have been several published reports of diphenidine being sold in combination with other research chemicals, particularly synthetic cannabinoids and stimulants in Japanese herbal incense blends.[13][14][15] The first reported seizure concerned a Japanese product called “fragrance powder” containing diphenidine and benzylpiperazine.[16] A herbal incense sold in the Shizuoka Prefecture under the name “Aladdin Spacial [sic] Edition” was found to contain diphenidine and 5F-AB-PINACA at concentrations of 289 mg/g and 55.5 mg/g, respectively.[13] A product called ‘‘Herbal Incense. The Super Lemon’’ containing AB-CHMINACA5F-AMB, and diphenidine was implicated in a fatal poisoning.[14] Most recently diphenidine consumed in conjunction with three substituted cathinones, three benzodiazepines, and alcohol was implicated in a fatal ingestion of “bath salt” and “liquid aroma” products in Japan.[17]

In Canada, MT-45 and its analogues were made Schedule I controlled substances.[18] Possession without legal authority can result in maximum seven years imprisonment. Further, Health Canada amended the Food and Drug Regulations in May, 2016 to classify DND as a restricted drug. Only those with a law enforcement agency, person with an exemption permit or institutions with Minister’s authorization may possess the drug.

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